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T owning options with a high IV can be considered quite risky; a crunch could significantly reduce their value, even if the underlying security moves in the right direction for you

The options are therefore increasing in price because there is a big change expected in the price of the Company rather than any actual movement. This is basically the effect of projected volatility,(IV )in action.What happens when people purchase options? It drives up the price and Iv of those strikes.What happens when people sell options? It drives the price and IV lower in those strikes..Implied volatility is  projection of how much, and how fast, the underlying security is likely to move in price During remaing life of option

The implied volatility of an option is not constant. It moves higher and lower for a variety of reasons. Most of the time the changes are gradual. However, there are a few situations in which options change ​price in quantum leaps—catching rookie traders by surprise.

When the market declines rapidly, implied volatility (IV) tends to increase rapidly. If there is a Black Swan, or similar event (market plunge), IV is likely to explode higher.

When the market gaps higher, especially after it had been moving lower, all fear of a bear market disappears and option premium undergoes a significant and immediate decline. 

Once ​the news is released (i.e. earnings are announced or the FDA issues a report), IV is often crushed.

When news is pending for a given stock (earnings announcement, FDA results on a drug trial, etc.) option buyers are more aggressive than sellers, and that buying demand results in higher implied volatility and therefore, higher option premium

volatility is essentially a measure of the speed and amount of changes. In a financial sense, it's basically the rate at which the price of a financial instrument moves.When the price of a security goes up and down by small amounts over a period of time, it's said to be moving sideways. This is because if you plotted the price movements on a graph, the graph line wouldn’t show any real incline or decline, but it would basically be moving sideways. When a price is moving sideways the underlying security is in what's known as a neutral trend.,here  the three types of volatility.Historical volatility shows how the stock has moved in the past, usually 20 or 30 trading days back.current volatility  AND expected volatility .all strikes in a given expiration do not trade at the same volatility.at-the-money, options have a smaller vega, this means that the price is less affected by changes in volatility.volatility is mean reverting

 A call's Delta will range from 0 to 1, with in-the-money being move towards  to 1 (with 1 being the equivalent of long position in the underlying asset), and out-of-the-money moves towardsr to 0. A put's Delta will range from -1 to 0, with in-the-money being closer to -1(with -1 being the equivalent of a short position in the underlying asset)., and out-of-the-money closer to 0.the underlying stock position will also have a Delta of 1 if you are long, and a Delta of -1 if you are short the positio.The Deltas of calls and puts both increases as the stock price increases and decrease as the stock price decreases

The Delta of your options will change as the time to expiration becomes shorter. As each day passes, your option Delta will continue on its current path. If your call option is in-the-money, it will start getting closer to 1. If your put option is in-the-money, it will start begin to get closer to -1.Similarly, your at-the-money options, both calls, and puts, will keep their Deltas at 0.50 and -0.50, respectively.Out-of-the-money call and put options will both head towards 0 as the time to expiration gets closer

option’s delta changes as volatility changes, no trader can be certain that a position isreally delta neutral. The delta depends on the volatility of the underlying contract In-the-money option Deltas will decrease, at-the-money Deltas will stay the same, and out-of-the-money Deltas will increase.as implied volatility decreases, your option Delta will begin to move further away from at-the-money. In-the-money options will move closer to 1 and -1, at-the-money options will remain at 0.50, and out-of-the-money options will move towards 0.Delta values decline as implied volatility falls, while the fall in Delta is the highest for at- and out-of-the-money calls, assuming no time value decay.

The sensitivity of the delta to a change in volatility is sometimes referred to as the option’svanna. The sensitivity of the delta to the passage of time is sometimes referred to as the option’s delta decay or its charm.

Delta is not a static number, but a number that is constantly changing. To measure that change, we use our Greek Gamma. This is where you will learn that not all deltas are created equal. Two options may have the same deltas, but different gammas and different directional risk.At-the money (ATM) option have higesht gamma and higeset vega. long options are positive Gamma and short options are negative Gamma.short gamma indicates that negative deltas will be manufactured if the stock price rises, and positive deltas if the stock price falls..The underlying will have a Delta equal to 1, but it has no Gamma because the Delta never changes..

Gamma is affected by the passage of time differently depending on the option's moneyness.If your option is at-the-money, Gamma will increase significantly as you get closer to expiration.

As you get further out-of-the-money or deeper in-the-money, the effect on Gamma is minimized.

The further out in time your expiration, the smaller your Gamma will be. 

 Vega measures the rate of change in the implied volatility of an option or position, which is similar to the way that Delta measures the change in an underlying asset price. ... This is why long options have a positive Vega and short options have a negative Vega

Positive Vega Signs>Long straddles and strangles.Short butterflies and condors,Ratio spreads—long more than short (including short Christmas trees).Long calendar spreads
 

negative Vega Signs> (Short Call/Put,Short Straddle/ Strangle,SHOT Ratio Spread,Covered Call/put Write.long butterfly,longer condor,short calender spread,

.higher the vega if volatiitly increse,Higher the vega if The more time remaining to option expiration,. This makes sense as time value makes up a larger proportion of the premium for longer term options and it is the time value that is sensitive to changes in volatility.vega decrease if option near to expiration.vega is also lower for current expiry among 3 week  contracts ,vega of the call and the put on the same strike and expiration is the same.whenever volatility goes up, the price of the option goes up and when volatility drops, the price of the option will also fall. Therefore, when calculating the new option price due to volatility changes, we add the vega when volatility goes up but subtract it when the volatility falls.at-the-money, options have a smaller vega, this means that the price is less affected by changes in volatility.all strikes in a given expiration do not trade at the same volatility.Puts and calls of the same strike usually trade at the same volatility

Rebound reversal rallies(toppng  and bottmamin out) tend to generate large implied volatility declines, which means that the Vega losses could more than offset the Delta gains. The trader may have correctly predicted the direction of the rebound, but the decline in volatility would have wiped out those gains. A better option would have been a short put or in-the-money bull call spread that is long Delta and short Vega.

Volatility Minimizes The Effect of Theta.Selling options is a positive theta trade. Positive theta means the time value in stocks will melt in your favor.If the option moves out of the money (OTM), the time value will grow.Vega is part of the timec value and can inflate or deflate the premium quickly. small changes in Vega values can have a bigger impact than Theta values.One place this is apparent is over the weekend. Look at the volatility of the index , how it increases on Friday and decreases on Monday.

Another way we can observe volatility's effect on time decay is during earnings. An option's price won't typically increase or decrease leading up to earnings as time passes. The reason for this is, volatility is also moving higher and offsetting time.

Small moves in price, at expiration, can have a big move in the option price.

 

 

 

The term "volatility skew" refers to the fact that implied volatility is noticeably higher for OTM options with strike prices below the underlying asset's price. And IV is noticeably lower for OTM options that are struck above the underlying asset price.NOTE: IV is the same for a paired put and call. When the strike price and expiration are identical, then the call and put options share a common IV. This may not be obvious when looking at option prices.IV rises when markets decline; IV falls when markets rally.Implied volatility is constantly changing. So if implied volatility is high on a particular option or a strike or a month, it usually means people have been buying those options You Can Profit From Volatility Skew With put Ratio Spreads.Start buying options with lower implied volatility while selling options with higher implied volatility in 1:2

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